Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis

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Introduction

FSG has risen to include 25% of adult nephropathies. It is a clinical-pathological syndrome describing mulitple disease entities. Clinicially, there is proteinuria. Pathologically, focal segmental glomerular consolidation or scarring.

 

The Case of...

a simple case introducing clincial presentation and calling for a differential diagnosis to get students thinking.

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Causes and Risk Factors

Causes include:

There may also be an association with obesity.

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Pathophysiology

Injury is caused by unknown entities in most cases, and inflammation ultimately leads to collagen scarring. Hyaline deposits can be seen in glomeruli.

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Signs and Symptoms

  • history
  • physical exam

History

Hypertension is a later presentation.

Physical Exam

 

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Investigations

  • lab investigations
  • diagnostic imaging

Lab Investigations

Proteinuria or nephrotic syndrome are frequent presenting conditions, with hematuria later developing.

Diagnostic Imaging

 

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Differential Diagnosis

 

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Treatments

Treatment can include corticosteroids, cyclophosphamide, and cyclosporin.

Dialysis and transplantation may also be needed.

 

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Consequences and Course

Most people with FSGS develop chronic renal failure within 10 years.

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Resources and References

 

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Topic Development

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