Musculoskeletal Injuries, Conditions, and Diseases


Muskuloskeletal injuries, conditions, and diseases are extremely common.





  • Trauma and
  • Degerative
  • Inflammatory/Infectious
    Conditions and Diseases
  • Connective
    Tissue Disorders
  • Tumours

  • Congenital

Trauma and Injury



adhesive capsulitis (frozen shoulder)

shoulder impingement

shoulder dislocation



lateral epicondylitis

medial epicondylitis


Wrist and Hand

carpal tunnel syndrome

distal radius fracture

de Quervain's tenosynovitis


low back pain


hip fractures



torn ACL



lateral sprain

medial sprain
















compartment syndrome


Degenerative Processes


osteomalacia and rickets



Arthritis in Canada: An Going Challenge

Immunological Conditions and Diseases



Connective Tissue Diseases


Autoimmune Connective Tissue Disorders

Characterized by autoimmunity against systemic proteins and multi-system disease, often associated with constitutional symptoms.



Heritable Connective Tissue Disorders

  • Marfan syndrome
  • Ehlers-Danlos syndrome
  • osteogenesis imperfecta
  • can also have overlap of the above conditions.
  • associated with specific antibody - RNP


Tumours of the musculoskeletal system can range from the more common benign to the rarer malignant tumours. While they can arise from any cellular element, they are almost always mesenchymal in origin.

In general, sarcomas tend to arise de novo, not from benign neoplasms. Many preferentially affect children and young adults. Many sarcomas have characteristic molecular abnormalities, especially chromosomal translocations, though the ultimate etiology of most is unknown.

bone tumours

soft tissue tumours


bone tumours

osteoma and osteosarcoma

chondroma and chondrosarcoma

Ewing's sarcoma

soft tissue tumours

Soft tissue tumours arise anywhere deep to the skin and above the periosteum.


fibroma and fibrosarcoma

lipoma and liposarcoma

leiomyoma and leiomyosarcoma

rhabdomyoma and rhabdomyosarcoma

angioma and angiosarcoma



Most sarcomas are high grade, with a moderate to high rate of metastatic spread via the blood. The lung is the most frequent site of metastasis.


An enlarging mass is the most common symptom of soft tissue tumours.

Pain is the most common symptom of bone tumours. The pain is persistent and of increasing intensity, not associated with a history of trauma. They may present with pathologic fracture.

Bone may respond via lysis, remodeling, or mixed lysis and remodeling.

Psuedotumours are conditions that simulate true neoplasms

Congenital Disorders