Chronic Tubulointerstitial Nephropathy is characterized by by slowly progressive renal insufficiency, proteinuria <3.5g/day, and tubular damage disproportionately severe than degree of kidney impairment.
Certain causes tend to damage only a certain segment of the nephron and.
Chronic urinary obstruction, drug-induced nephropathy (analgesics, cytotoxic, or immunosuppressive agents), multiple myeloma, heavy metal toxicity (lead, cadmium), sickle cell disease, immune disorders (SLE, transplant rejection, Sjogren's syndrome) or polycystic kidney disease can lead to chronic tubulointerstitial nephropathy.
Most patients have little or no clinical evidence of inflammation,
Urinalysis can show pyuria and minimal hematuria, with occasional leukocyte and granular casts.
Proteinuria is usually less than 1 g/day.
Modest sodium wasting, hyperkalemia, and normal anion gap acidosis are common.
Chronic tubulointerstitial nephropathy is characterized by interstitial mononuclear cell infoltrate and fibrosis, along with atrophy and loss of renal tubules.
Chronic interstitial nephropathy is an important cause of chronic renal failure and appears to be responsible for 15-30% of all cases of end stage renal disease.