Renal Investigations


History and physical exam can uncover many signs and symptoms of renal involvement.

Renal function tests can be used to approximate GFR.

Urinalysis is a simple means of assessing for renal disease.

Arterial blood gases helps identify acid-base concerns.

Imaging ranges from ultrasound to arteriography and can uncover many pathologic events.

Kidney biopsy is commony done when glomerular problems are likely.